Dextrose monohydrate, commonly referred to simply as ‘dextrose,’ is the monohydrate of D-glucose, a monosaccharide which is freely available in its natural form. With a sweetening power roughly 70% that of sucrose and the ability to form a highly clear solution with water, dextrose monohydrate has several applications in the food and beverage industry. Dextrose monohydrate exists in several different molecular structures and all forms of Dextrose monohydrate are colourless and easily soluble in majority of the solvents. Dextrose was first isolated from Raisins by a German scientist in 1747 and it’s considered as one of the most important organic compounds for various commercial applications. Dextrose monohydrate is one of the three dietary monosaccharides that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion. Dextrose monohydrate is one of the main carbohydrate that cells can utilize as a secondary source of energy for their metabolism. Glucose is used as an energy source in most organisms by either aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration and fermentation.The various grades of dextrose monohydrate produced depend on the solubility and the flowability of the product. China and India are leading manufacturers and exporters of dextrose monohydrate.
Properties of Dextrose Monohydrate:
Crystalline dextrose is readily soluble in water, but only slightly in ethanol and hardly soluble in other organic solvents.
Dextrose is a reducing sugar and the reducing power of dextrose is measured by its ability to reduce solutions of alkaline copper sulphate solution to cuprous oxide.
At temperatures below 55 °C dextrose crystallizes from aqueous concentrated solutions in the monohydrate form and above 55 °C the anhydrous form of Dextrose is crystallizing where the dextrose crystal contains no crystal water.
Dextrose is one of the sweetest of the starch derived sugars and its sweetness is influenced by a variety of factors such as temperature, acidity, salts, flavoring materials, sweetener concentration and the nature of other sugars present. Dextrose is often used together to control and balance the sweetness and total solids.
Dextrose monohydrate and anhydrous dextrose are available in a variety of particle size distributions and granulometry to provide ease and stability of blending.
Production of Dextrose Monohydrate:
Dextrose monohydrate can be prepared bio synthetically and commercially upon its application and usages.
Commercial application-Dextrose monohydrate is commercially produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch. Starch is readily available in many forms such as maize, rice, wheat and potato.
Biosynthesis-In plants, glucose is a product of photosynthesis and the breakdown substrate is called starch. In animals, Glucose results from the breakdown of glycogen.
The manufacturing process of dextrose monohydrate is a very straight forward one. It is produced by the hydrolysis of corn starch, resulting in the formation of a solution of dextrose monohydrate and water. The resulting solution can be separated by distillation.
Typically, enzymatic hydrolysis of starch is carried out by using enzymes like pancreatin. An aqueous solution of corn starch is first brought to a boil for a stipulated amount of time depending on the volume of starch being processed. Then, the solution is immersed into a water bath at temperatures of around 40°C, which would be the optimal working temperature for pancreatin. The addition of activant salts into the mixture then enables the hydrolysis of corn starch to take place in situ and the solution can be sent for post-production processes including purification, concentration, crystallization and drying.
Food Industry Dextrose monohydrate is used in the food industry for its desired physical properties such as viscosity, boiling point, melting point, freezing point, viscosity and sweetness. It is used in various food products such as baked goods, candies, ice creams, dairy products, cereal products and alcoholic beverages. Dextrose is a readily fermentable sugar and is majorly used in beverages because it imparts sweetness and provides the osmotic pressure required for beverages. Dextrose monohydrate contributes nearly 75-80% sweetness to the candies and dairy products. Dextrose monohydrate can have the ability of imparting desirable brown colour in bread.Products such as baked goods, packaged snacks, canned beverages and dairy products all contain dextrose monohydrate.
Dextrose monohydrate is used in the pharmaceuticals industry as a source of metabolic energy in electrolyte manufacturing.It is used for medical purposes in powder and tablet form, as well as in isotonic and hypertonic (10-40 %) glucose solutions. Dextrose monohydrate is formulated with vitamin D and minerals like Calcium are used in the preparation of glucose tablets for patients. Dextrose monohydrate provides provides easy assimilation and replenishment of essential nutrients and acts a ready source of energy. Dextrose monohydrate is used as a raw material for biochemical synthesis of antibiotics. Dextrose monohydrate is often used in managing hypoglycemia of diabetic patients. Glucose monohydrate is used to treat infectious diseases, heart ailments and various intoxication in combination with ascorbic acid.
Being a form of glucose, It is the primary ingredient in oral rehydration salts (ORS) due to its high solubility, high sugar content and ease of manufacture. Dextrose monohydrate is also used in intravenous (IV) fluids to provide electrolytes to patients through non-oral routes. Dextrose monohydrate also serves to restore blood glucose levels and aid protein production. It is also used as a buffering agent and nutritional supplement in injections, animal feed and in veterinary medicine.
Dextrose serves as a raw material in the manufacture of citric acid, amino acids, enzymes, lactic acid and ethanol. Sorbitol, mannitol methyglucoside, gluconic acid and calcium gluconates are also produced from various chemical reactions with Dextrose Monohydrate.
Dextrose monohydrate is used in energy drinks as a higher composition of carbohydrates. It is milder in sweetness and has lesser calories than sugar. It can also be used as a precursor for the production of vitamin C, Starch, cellulose and glycogen. Modification of Dextrose monohydrate molecules leads to the production of Sorbitol. It is also used in cattle and poultry feed industry.3Aside from its uses as a nutritional supplement and sweetening agent in the pharmaceutical and food industries respectively, dextrose monohydrate is also used in several other industries including the leather processing industry as an antioxidant, in the chemicals industry as a fermentation substrate for the manufacture of various vitamins and amino acids and in the healthcare industry as an ingredient in the manufacture of makeup, hair care products and cosmetics.